Salud Mental

Construct validity of a new scale for assessing anger proneness (APS-G)


Cirilo H. García-Cadena
Leopoldo Daniel-González
Adrián Valle de la O
Tomás Caycho-Rodriguez
Arnoldo Téllez López


Introduction. The negative effects of anger on health highlight the value of developing short, reliable, and valid instruments that allow its assessment whether for the purpose of research, clinical diagnosis, and/or evaluation of interventions aimed at reducing it effectively.

Objective. The primary aim of this research was to determine the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity, as well as the factorial invariance, of a new scale to measure anger proneness.

Method. A confirmatory factorial analysis was used.

Results. An online nonprobability sample composed of 457 participants (35.2% men and 64.8% women), with a mean age of 36.87 years (SD = 12.513) was recruited. The unidimensional model of the García’s Brief Scale for Assessing Anger Proneness (APS-G scale) shows a good data fit (df = 2; χ2 = 5.515; χ2/df = 2.575; CFI = .993; GFI = .996; RMSEA = .051; SRMR = .0193). There are factorial, configural, metric, unrestricted, strong, and strict factorial invariances between men and women. Likewise, a positive correlation coefficient exists between the APS-G scale and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) (r = .561; p < .01); on the other hand, there is a negative correlation coefficient between the studied scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (r = -.179; p < .01).

Discussion and conclusion. A new reliable and valid instrument to measure anger proneness has been created, and its use is proposed for research and screening purposes with Spanish-speaking population.

Anger, personality tests, psychometrics, mental health


Atienza, F., Pons, D., Balaguer, I., & García-Merita, M. (2000). Propiedades psicométricas de la escala de satisfacción con la vida en adolescentes. Psicothema, 12(2), 314-319.

Alcázar, R. J., Deffenbacher, J. L., & Byrne, Z. S. (2011). Assessing the Factor Structure of the Anger Expression Inventory (MLSTAXI) in a Mexican Sample. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 11, 307-318.

Alonso-Arbiol, I., Van de Vijver, F.J.R., Fernandez, I., Paez, D., Campos, M., & Carrera, P. (2011). Implicit theories about interrelations of anger components in 25 countries. Emotion, 11(1), 1-11. doi:10.1037/a0020295

Barefoot, J.C., Dodge, K.A., Peterson, B. L., Dahlstrom, W.G., & Williams, X.B. (1989). The cook-medley hostility scale: Item content and ability to predict survival. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 46-57.

Barefoot, J., Larsen, S., Von Der Lieth, L., & Schroll, M. (1995). Hostility, incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and mortality in a sample of older Danish men and women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, 477-480. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a117663

Berkowitz, L., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2004). Toward an understanding of the determinants of anger. Emotion, 4(2), 107-130. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.4.2.107

Bollen, K.A. (1998). Structural equation models. In P. Armitage, & T. Colton (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Biostatistics (pp. 4363-4372). Sussex, UK: Wiley.

Borteyrou, X., Bruchon-Schweitzer, M., & Spielberger, C. D. (2008). The French adaptation of the STAXI-2, C. D. Spielberger’s State-trait anger expression inventory. Encephale, 34, 249-255. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2007.06.001.

Burns, J. W., Gerhart, J. I., Bruehl, S., Peterson, K. M., Smith, D. A.,

Porter, L. S., Schuster, E., Kinner, E., Buvanendran, A., Fras, A. M., &

Keefe, F. J. (2015). Anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation in everyday life among patients with chronic low back pain: Relationships to patient pain and function. Health Psychology, 34(5), 547-555. doi:10.1037/hea0000091

Burns, J. W., Gerhart, J. I., Bruehl, S., Post, K. M., Smith, D. A., Porter, L. S., Schuster, E., Buvanendran, A., Fras, A. M. & Keefe, F. J. (2016). Anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation in everyday life among people with chronic low back pain: Relationships with spouse responses and negative affect. Health Psychology, 35(1), 29-40. doi:10.1037/hea0000221

Byrne, B. M. (2008). Testing for multigroup equivalence of a measuring in-strument: a walk through the process. Psicothema, 20(4), 872-882.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155 – 159. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

Caycho-Rodríguez, T. (2017). Tamaño del efecto e intervalos de confianza para correlaciones: aportes a Montes Hidalgo y Tomás-Sábado. Enfermería Clínica, 27(5), 331-2. doi: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2017.07.001

Cheung, G.W., & Rensvold, R.B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9, 233-255. doi:10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5

Courtney, M. (2013). Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in EFA: Using the SPSSR-Menu v2.0 to Make More Judicious Estimations. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 18(8), 1-14.

Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of test. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.

DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development. Theory and applications (2nd.ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, R., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

Eckhardt, C., Norlander, B., & Deffenbacher, J. (2004). The assessment of anger and hostility: A critical review. Aggressive and Violent Behavior, 9(1), 17-43. doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(02)00116-7

Engebretson, T. O., Stoney, C. M. (1995). Anger expression and lipid concentrations. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2(4), 281-298.

Etzler, S. L., Rohrmann, S., & Brandt, H. (2014). Validation of the STAXI-2: A study with prison inmates. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 56(2), 178-194.

Everson, S.A., Kauhanen, J., Kaplan, G.A., Goldberg, D.E., Julkunen, J., Tuomilehto, J., & Salonen, J.T. (1997). Hostility and increased risk of mortality and acute myocardial infarction: the mediating role of behavioral risk factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 146(2), 142-152. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009245

Everson-Rose, S.A. & Lewis, T.T. (2005). Psychosocial factors and cardiovascular diseases. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 469-500.

Ford, C. D., Sims, M., Higginbotham, J. C., Crowther, M. R., Wyatt, S. B., Musani, S. K., Payne, T. J., Fox, E. R., Parton, J. M. (2016). Psychosocial Factors Are Associated With Blood Pressure Progression Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. American

Journal of Hypertension, 29(8), 913-924. doi:10.1093/ajh/hpw013

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39- 50. doi: 10.2307/3151312.

Fujikoshi Y (2000). Transformations with improved chi-squared approximations. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 72(2), 249-63. doi: 10.1006/jmva.1999.1854.

García, C.H., Carrascoza, C.A., & Díaz, H.L. (2013). Psychological Theory and Research in Mexico: Critical Reflections. International Journal of Psychology Research, 8(2), 85-93.

García-Cadena, C. H., Téllez-López, A., Ramírez-Aguillón, G., Ramírez-Hernández, E., & Pérez-Cota, E. J. (2016). Toward a Global Conceptualization and Measurement in Positive Psychology. In Bowers (Ed.), Psychological Well-Being. Cultural Influences, Measurement Strategies and Health Implications (pp. 21-42). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Gerin, W., Davidson, K.W., Christenfeld, N.J., Goyal, T., & Schwartz, J.E. (2006). The role of angry rumination and distraction in blood pressure recovery from emotional arousal. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(1), 64-72. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000195747.12404.aa

Giancola, P. R. (2002). The influence of trait anger on the alcohol-aggression relation in men and women. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(9), 1350-1358. doi:10.1097/00000374-200209000-00007

Grossarth-Maticek, R., Kanazir, D.T., Schmidt, P., & Vetter, H. (1982). Psychosomatic factors in the process of carcinogenesis. Theoretical Models and Empirical Results Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 38, 284-302. doi: 10.1159/000287636.

Hancock, G.R., & Mueller, R.D. (2006). Structural Equation Modeling, A Second Course. Greenwich, Connecticut: IAP.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118

Johnson, E., Collier, P., Nazzaro, P., & Gilbert, D. (1992). Psychological and physiological predictors of lipids in Black males. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3), 285-298.

Kalter, N. (1987). Long-term effects of divorce on children: A developmental vulnerability model. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57(4), 587-600. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.1987.tb03574.x

Kantor, J. R. (1959). Interbehavioral Psychology: A Sample of Scientific Science Construction. Bloomington, IN: Principia Press.

Kantor, J.R. (1969, 3Th. reprint). Principles of Psychology. Bloomington, IN: Principia Press.

Kerns, R., Rosenberg, R., & Jacob, M. (1994). Anger expression and chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17, 57-67.

Kitayama, S., Park, J., Boylan, J.M., Miyamoto, Y., Levine, C.S.,

Markus, H.R., Karasawa, M., Coe, C., Kawakami, N., Love, G., & Ryff C. (2015). Expression of anger and ill health in two cultures: an examination of inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Psychological Science, 26(2), 211–220. doi: 10.1177/0956797614561268.

Kopper, B.A., & Epperson, D.L. (1996). The experience and expression of anger: Relationships with gender, gender role socialization, depression, and mental health functioning. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(2), 158-165. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.43.2.158

Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Goal incongruent (negative) emotions. In R.S.

Lazarus (Ed.), Emotion and Adaptation (pp. 217-263). New York: Oxford University Press.

Lazarus, R. S. (1996). The role of coping in the emotions and how coping changes over the life course. In C. Malastesta-Magai, & S. McFadden (Eds.), Handbook of Emotion, Adult Development, and Aging (pp. 289-306). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Leserman, J., Petitto, J. M., Gu, H., Gaynes, B. N., Barroso, J.,

Golden, R. N., Perkins, D. O., Folds, J. D., & Evans, D. L. (2002). Progression to AIDS, a clinical AIDS condition and mortality: psychosocial and physiological predictors. Psychological Medicine, 32(6), 1059-1073. doi:10.1017/S0033291702005949

Lubke, G.H., Ouwens, K.G., de Moor M.H., Trull, T.J., & Boomsma, D.I. (2015). Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems. Psychiatry Research, 230(2), 553-560. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.10.003

Maldonado, R.C., Watkins, L.E., & DiLillo, D. (2014). The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(7), 1112-27. doi: 10.1177/0886260514539850

MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 4, 84-99.

Matthews, K., Owens, J., Kuller, L., Sutton-Tyrrell, K., & Jansen-McWilliams, L. (1998). Are hostility and anxiety associated with carotid atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women? Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 633-638.

May, R. W., Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. A., Hawkins, K. A., Batchelor, W. B., & Fincham, F. D. (2014). Effect of anger and trait forgiveness on cardiovascular risk in young adult females. American Journal of Cardiology, 114(1), 47-52. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.04.007

McDonald, R.P. (1999). Test Theory: A Unified Treatment. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

Merino-Soto, C., Domínguez-Lara, S., & Fernández-Arata, M. (2017). Validación inicial de una Escala Breve de Satisfacción con los Estudios en estudiantes universitarios de Lima. Educación Médica, 18(1), 74-77. doi: 10.1016/j.edumed.2016.06.016.

Miller, T.Q., Smith, T.W., Turner, C.W., Guijarro, M.L., & Hallet, A.J. (1996). A meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physicalhealth. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 322-348. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.322

Miguel-Tobal, J., Casado, M., Can-Vindel, A., & Spielberger, C. (2001). Inventario de Expresión de la Ira Estado-Rasgo STAXI-2. Madrid: TEA Ediciones.

Moral, J., González, M., & Landero, R. (2010). Factor structure of the STAXI and its relationship to the burnout in housewives. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(1), 411-423.

Moral, J., & Segovia, M. P. (2015). Propiedades psicométricas de la escala de expresión de la ira en mujeres con VIH. Revista Ciencia UANL, 18(74), 69-74.

Moral, J., Ramos-Basurto, S., & Segovia-Chávez, M. P. (2015). Validación cruzada de la escala de expresión de ira en mujeres con VIH y población general. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 6, 81-89.

Moral, J., & Ramos, S. (2015). Estructura factorial y consistencia interna de los ítems de expresión de ira del STAXI-2 en una muestra de población general de la ciudad de Monterrey, México. PSICUMEX, 5(2), 20-39.

Morrison, P. M., Noel, N. E., & Ogle, R.L. (2012). Do angry women choose alcohol? Addictive Behavior, 37(8):908-913. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.03.018

Moscoso, M. S. (2014). Medición psicométrica de la expresión de la ira y hostilidad. Revista de Psicología, 16(2), 169-178.

Moscoso, M.S. (1995). Manejo cognitivo conductual del estrés en individuos VIH-1 seropositivos. Avances en Psicología Clínica Latinoamericana, 13, 39-53.

Moscoso, M.S., & Bermúdez, M.P. (1999). Ira y Hostilidad: Evaluación e implicaciones en el tratamiento psicológico de pacientes infectados por VIH. In E.G. Fernández-Abascal, & F. Palmero, Emociones y Salud (pp. 233-250). Barcelona: Editorial Ariel.

Müller, M. M., Rau, H., Brody, S., Elbert, T., & Heinle, H. (1995). The relationship between habitual anger coping style and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Biological Psychology, 41(1), 69-81.

Nadimpalli, S. B., Kanaya, A. M., McDade, Th. W., & Kandula, N. R. (2016). Self-Reported Discrimination and Mental Health Among Asian Indians: Cultural Beliefs and Coping Style as Moderators. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 7(3), 185-194. doi:10.1037/aap0000037

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ohira, T., Diez Roux, A. V., Polak, J. F., Homma, S., Iso, H., & Wasserman, B. A. (2012). Associations of anger, anxiety, and depressive symptoms with carotid arterial wall thickness: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(5), 517-525. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31824f6267

Okuda, M., Picazo, J., Olfson, M., Hasin, D.S., Liu, S.M., Bernardi, S., & Blanco, C. (2015). Prevalence and correlates of anger in the community: results from a national survey. CNS Spectrums, 20(2), 130-9. doi:10.1017/S1092852914000182

Oliva, F. J., Hernández, M. R., & Calleja, N. (2010). Validación de la versión mexicana del Inventario de Expresión de Ira Estado-Rasgo (STAXI-2). Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 13(2), 107-117.

Padrós, F., Gutiérrez, C. Y., & Medina, M. A. (2015). Propiedades psicométricas de la escala de satisfacción con la vida (SWLS) de Diener en población de Michoacán (México). Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana, 33(2), 223–232. DOI: 10.12804/apl33.02.2015.04

Pérez-García, A.M., Sanjuán, P., Rueda, B., & Ruiz, M.A. (2011). Salud cardiovascular en la mujer: el papel de la ira y su expresión. Psicothema, 23(4), 593-598.

Ribes-Iñesta, E. (2007). Lenguaje, aprendizaje y conocimiento. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 24(1), 7-14.

Ribes-Iñesta, E. (2009). La personalidad como organización de los estilos interactivos. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 26(2), 145-161.

Rodríguez, M. N., & Ruiz, M. Á. (2008). Atenuación de la asimetría y de la curtosis de las puntuaciones observadas mediante transformaciones de variables: incidencia sobre la estructura factorial. Psicológica, 29(2), 205-227.

Rosenthal, J. A. (1994). Reliability and social work research. Social Work Research, 18, 115-121.

Rukundo, G. Z., Mishara, B. L., & Kinyanda, E. (2016). Psychological correlates of suicidality

in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban south-western Uganda. Tropical Doctor, 46(4), 211-215. doi:10.1177/0049475515623110

Scherer, K. R., Rime´, B., & Chipp, P. (1989). L’experienceemotionnelle dans la culture europeenne. In B. Rime´, & K. Scherer (Eds.), Les Emotions (pp. 247-270). Neuchatel: Delachaux-Niestle.

Shaver, P. R., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, D. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1061-1086.

Smith, T.W., Glazer, K., Ruiz, J.M., & Gallo, L.C. (2004). Hostility, Anger, Aggressiveness, and Coronary Heart Disease: An Interpersonal Perspective on Personality, Emotion, and Health. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1217–1270. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00296.x

Spielberger, C. D., Jacobs, G., Russell, S., & Crane, R. (1983). Assessment of anger: The state-trait anger scale. In J. N. Butcher, & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in Personality Assessment (Vol. 3, pp. 112-134). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Spielberger, C., & Reheiser, E. (2009). Assessment of emotions: Anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity. Applied psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1(3), 271 302.

Spielberger, C. D. (1999). The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2: Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Streiner, D. L. (1993). A checklist for evaluating the usefulness of rating scales. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 140-148.

Suls, J., Wan, C. K., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1995). Relationship of trait anger to resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 14, 444-456.

Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Osterlind, S. J. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Ten-Berge, J.M.F. (1986). Some relations between descriptive comparisons of components from different studies. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 21, 29-40.

Thomas, S. P., Groer, M., Davis, M., Droppleman, P., Mozingo, J., & Pierce, M. (2000). Anger and cancer: an analysis of the linkages. Cancer Nursing, 23(5), 344-349. doi:10.1097/00002820-200010000-00003

Ventura-León, J.L., & Caycho-Rodríguez, T. (2017). El coeficiente Omega: un método alternativo para la estimación de la fiabilidad. Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud, 15(1), 625-627.

Velicer, W. F., & Fava, J. L. (1998). Effects of variable and subject sampling on factor pattern recovery. Psychological Methods, 3(2), 231-251.

White, V. M., English, D. R., Coates, H., Lagerlund, M., Borland, R., & Giles, G. G. (2007). Is cancer risk associated with anger control and negative affect? Findings from a prospective cohort study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(7), 667-674. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31814d4e6a

Williams, B., Brown, T., & Onsman, A. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine, 8(3), 1-13.

Williams, J. E., Couper, D. J., Din-Dzietham, R., Nieto, F. J., & Folsom, A. R. (2007). Race-gender differences in the association of trait anger with subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(11). 1296-1304. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm001